The relative date slicer (a Preview feature as of June ‘17) gets us close to this with the ’This Month’ or ‘This Year’ settings. That is a dynamic date selection that updates based on the current system date. We plan to add a ‘YTD’/‘MTD’ option to specifically select a range from the start of the month/year up to today, hopefully that’ll address the remaining requirements!
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Yes! This gets to be very important when you start using URLs for dynamic filtering. The chart titles also need to be able to adapt dynamically. Chris Webb had a nice post on this, I can write the measure, I just dont have a good way to display it within the correct visual. Chris gives a work around but that will not work long term.
Conditional formatting allows you to do this: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/power-bi/desktop-conditional-table-formatting.
You can set rules for positive, negative, color scales etc. even custom logic by using a measure that returns a hex code for your color.